Herbert Marcuse is a German-American philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, a member of the Frankish school. He believes that society as the object of traditional Western research is a pathological society. His definition of a diseased society is the characteristics of a society's basic system and relationship structure, which make it unable to use the existing material and spiritual means to fully display human nature. At this time, the society is diseased.


After reading the book Contemporary Social Problems: An Introduction to the Sociology of Deviant Behavior and Social Disorganization, I concluded that this book mainly discusses contemporary social problems in the following aspects: 1. Crime. 2 Juvenile crimes. 3 Mental illness. 4 Drug addiction. 5 Suicide. 6 Prostitution. 7 World population crisis. 8 Race and ethnic relations. 9 Family confusion. 10 Social issues. These aspects have some common factors and have a close and continuous relationship with social issues. 

Contemporary Social Problems: An Introduction to the Sociology of Deviant Behavior and Social Disorganization

By Robert K. Merton; Robert A. Nisbet

I think that these aspects are all necessary factors in the formation of a sick society, and a sick society is constituted by every sick member of society. Some people may have physical diseases, such as coronavirus. These patients, because they are dissatisfied with society, deliberately spit their saliva onto public facilities to infect more people. Or people living with AIDS, these patients spread the virus to more people through prostitution. These patients themselves only have physical illnesses, but because other members of the society are indifferent to them, they cause their mental illnesses and lead them to hate society. In contrast, the perpetrators in anti-racism activities are also the same. Anti-racism activities were supposed to be peaceful protests, but some people did not have a good education, poor living conditions and other factors, which led to a series of criminal acts such as robbery and theft in the activities.

I want to create a series of works. These works may be specific descriptions of specific illnesses, but more is to record the current situation of society and criticize the diseased society.


The History of Chinese Pathological Society is a book that analyzes and discusses the pathological social problems in Chinese history in depth and detail. The main content includes the characteristics of a sick society and its deep consciousness, the political sickness of traditional Chinese society, the restoration and adjustment of political sickness, old customs and social sickness, social crimes, etc.

On the History of Chinese Sick Society

By Feng Chen; Jinghua Liu

I combined this book as a detailed introduction to China's pathological society to develop my work. Especially the low income of the people caused by the corrupt bureaucracy. This phenomenon has caused ordinary people to worry about the economic sources of their daily lives, and some law-abiding people began to live a life of stalls in order to survive. On the contrary, some illegal meat sellers in order to obtain higher profits, they began to water the live pigs to increase the weight of the pork.


Similarly, I combined bureaucracy and political corruption in this book to provide my own critical practical insights. On the one hand, as President Xi Jinping vigorously corrects bureaucratic corruption in China today, the Chinese art market has suffered an unprecedented blow. Some bribers will no longer buy art to bribe. On the other hand, some leaders of the Fine Arts Association began to exaggerate their works. Initially, the artistic level of these artworks was not high, but these artists sold their works to wealthy people with a low aesthetic level according to their official positions.


Andy Warhol is an American artist, one of the pioneers of the visual art movement Pop Art. He believes that art is related to money, so he strives to commercialize art. This is why I discuss the important factors of the art market in the Critical Practice Submission. Among his famous works, there is a piece of Campbell Soup that is constantly being copied, which shows a new stage of the capitalist mode of production. The Museum of Modern Art in New York held a seminar on Pop Art in December 1962. Artists like Warhol were accused of being "flattering" to consumerism. But no matter how critics bombarded Warhol's embrace of commercialism, throughout the 1960s, the world witnessed an increasingly clear commercial transformation in the field of art and culture, and Warhol was at the core of this transformation.

He often uses screen print techniques to express objects, and repetition is a major feature of his works. In fact, the monotonous, boring and repetitive characteristic of Andy Warhol's paintings conveys a certain sense of indifference, emptiness, and alienation, which just shows the inner feelings of people in the contemporary highly developed commercial civilization. In addition to a lot of repetition, he also tried to eliminate the manual factors in artistic creation. All of his works are made with screen printing technology, and the image can be repeated countless times, bringing a unique dull effect to the picture. This is unimaginable in traditional art.

In China, where the medical insurance system is not perfect, ordinary people are very worried about some incurable diseases. Poor families and even some ordinary families simply cannot afford medical expenses. Those patients can only choose to wait quietly for death. I completed my Brain tumour using the performance technique of continuous replication. This work reflects the patients and their families' attitudes toward the numbness of the disease, and even more reflects the numbness of the government's reform of the medical insurance system. This is also a phenomenon in a sick society.



By Janelia Mould

Most of the work of photographer Janelia Mold is presented in surreal conceptual images that tell stories. Most of his works deliberately omit the head and limbs. She wants to understand the life experience of depression patients by creating a character that has never felt completely complete. She added a short text to each of her works.

Barren is one of her depression series. She said "Some days, I feel everything at once. Other days, I feel nothing at all. I don’t know what’s worse―drowning beneath the waves, or dying from the thirst."

Judging from the content of the photo, a little girl is walking on a dry road with an umbrella, but it rains heavily under her umbrella and wets the road she is stepping on. This is a dramatic contradiction contrast, which is a dramatic metaphor for people suffering from mental illness in a sick society. This affected the creation of my work Contradiction 1. I used such a dramatic way to show that an old man with a hard life is selling the happiness of children.


Photo by Christian Richter

German photographer Christian Richter spent seven years travelling across the European continent, visiting more than 1,000 ruins. He was born in East Germany and his childhood memories are full of crumbling buildings and power plants. After the Berlin Wall was overthrown, people left one after another, and the most prosperous churches, mansions and theatres were abandoned by people.

This has aroused my attention to the ruins and dilapidated scenes. Abandoned buildings are often formed because the buildings are not suitable for the economic development of the time, or even political events. The existing ruins often leave people's memories of the scene at that time. The immediate impression of the ruins is that the economy is declining, and all the flourishing scenes at that time will be eliminated by history. Under the influence of the global epidemic, China's economy has been hit hard. I expressed this in my work Contradiction 2 to reflect the current situation in China.


Keith Haring is an American pop artist. His works are usually simple and straightforward. Repeated patterns and cartoon graphics often appear in his paintings. His works contain a child's innocence and adult depth that can immediately move people, touching serious topics such as life and death. He also used his works to condemn drugs, racism, fear of homosexuality, warnings about AIDS, etc.



In 1981, AIDS began to spread in the United States. Due to insufficient medical skills at that time, some AIDS patients had psychological problems. They had sex with unsuspecting people to seek psychological balance, which caused devastating disaster in the United States. Due to the lack of understanding of the source and mode of transmission of the virus, there was no effective treatment for almost the entire 1980s. In New York, where interpersonal communication is active, the outbreak of the epidemic has even placed many artists and creators in it. The anti-AIDS movement has gradually become a world public movement dominated by artists. The Day Without Art, Silence = Death, held on December 1 every year, has become a global art movement to which museums, galleries and art centers around the world respond.


Unlike other artists, Keith Haring is a homosexual and AIDS patient. In 1988, he discovered that he was suffering from AIDS. He began to actively use his works to remind young people of safe sex and to prevent the spread of AIDS. Keith Haring's AIDS series is the product of the pathological society at that time. This has affected my research work on diseases and criticizing sick society.

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A home electroshock therapy unit, The Sinustat, from 1914.

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An artificial heart made by Thoratec.

Mariano Chavez is an American sculptor, and he is also the founder and proprietor of Agent Gallery Chicago. As an artist, Chavez has collected many old-fashioned medical devices because of the sculptural qualities and special uses of medical supplies.


An aluminum mask from 1903 used to restrain patients at Fairfield State hospital in Newtown, Connecticut.

A Jarvik-7 artificial heart.

Mariano Chavez's work has greatly influenced the development of my work, especially in terms of materials. A lot of medical equipment is used in my costume work. Most of Mariano Chavez's medical equipment series are simple placements of medical equipment. Unlike him, although my works are composed of static medical works, I combine other materials, such as loofah and pork. I want to reflect the dynamic functions of medical equipment in the materials to express the meaning of pathological society.


Similar to Unit 2, I continued to study the symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis in this unit.


This book details the pathogenesis, clinical features, genetic basis, diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of the complications of severe new coronavirus. The imaging theory of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is described in detail on pages 68-83 of this book.

Pulmonary fibrosis is the end-stage change of a large class of lung diseases characterized by fibroblast proliferation and a large number of extracellular matrix accumulation accompanied by inflammatory damage and tissue structure destruction, that is normal alveolar tissue is damaged and abnormally repaired to cause structure abnormal.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis : A Comprehensive Clinical Guide

Keith C. Meyer , Steven D. Nathan

The picture on the right is a lung image of a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The picture details the changes in the lung image of the patient after the disease. Although the patient had symptoms of dyspnea in the early stage, the X-ray chest radiograph may be basically normal; in the middle and late stages, there were diffuse reticulum or nodular shadows in the lower and middle lungs, and occasionally pleural effusion, thickening or calcification.


Diffuse reticular or nodular shadows are important indicators for identifying pulmonary fibrosis. In short, the inside of the lungs becomes a spider web structure. This greatly affected my research work. I want to objectively use loofah as a material to show the diffuse network characteristics of pulmonary fibrosis. These characteristics are not only attributable to the excessive repair of the lungs of the coronavirus, but also to the characteristics of people overreacting due to the stress in the entire epidemic, and they are also a manifestation of the development of a sick society.

This volume provides a deeper understanding of the diagnosis of brain tumours by correlating radiographic imaging features with the underlying pathological abnormalities. All modern imaging modalities are used to complete a diagnostic overview of brain tumours with emphasis on recent advances in diagnostic neuroradiology. High-quality illustrations depicting common and uncommon imaging characteristics of a wide range of brain tumours are presented and analysed, drawing attention to the ways in which these characteristics reflect different aspects of pathology. Important theoretical considerations are also discussed. 

Imaging of Brain Tumors with Histological Correlations

Editors: Drevelegas, Antonios (Ed.)

Tumours that grow in the brain are commonly called brain tumours, including primary brain tumours that occur from the brain parenchyma and secondary brain tumours that have metastasized to the brain from other parts of the body. Primary brain tumours are classified into benign and malignant according to their biological characteristics. Regardless of benign or malignant tumours, they can squeeze and move normal brain tissue, causing increased intracranial pressure and threatening human life.

These brain tumour features have affected the development of my work. I use the cross-section of the loofah to show the pathological features of the brain tumour.